Mongolia

ETC Activities

Mongolia is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, susceptible to ‘dzuds’, dust storms, droughts, floods, wildfires and earthquakes. Dzuds (which are severe winter colds and/or heavy snow associated with large-scale livestock losses), droughts and fires have caused catastrophic damage in Mongolia over the past decade due to their complex interaction with ecosystems and livelihoods.

While the ETC is not formally activated in Mongolia, the cluster is supporting UNICEF in Mongolia in its role as cluster lead, alongside government stakeholders and the humanitarian community. ETC preparedness efforts in Mongolia aims to support gaps and needs in information and communication technologies for at-risk communities.

The ETC conducted a mission to Mongolia from 28 July to 10 August 2021 to support country preparedness efforts with an aim to plan for and produce an Emergency Telecommunications Checklist, gather and consolidate partnerships with relevant stakeholders, support the local ICT Working Group, leverage the ETC’s global partnerships and assess and improve existing key communications channels, such as early warning systems.

The ETC mission report to Mongolia can be read here.

ICT Profile

Country background
Country name
Mongolia
Capital city
Ulaanbaatar
Name of national disaster management agency

National Emergency Management Authority (NEMA)

Name of telecommunications ministry

Communications and Information Technology Authority

Name of telecommunications regulator

Communications Regulatory Commission

Population

3,225,166 million

Country narrative

The country’s geographic terrain can be divided into 4 distinct zones: a forest-steppe zone, a steppe zone, a desert steppe and a desert zones. The country is surrounded by high mountain ranges and the forest-steppe zone in the Western and Central regions, while the steppe zone is located in the East and the Gobi Desert in found in the South. The country experiences a harsh continental climate characterised by long and cold winters and by dry and hot summers. It has 4 distinct seasons, however strong fluctuations in temperature and precipitation occur across its various locations. In the Northern mountainous regions and around the capital city Ulaanbaatar, annual average temperatures range from -22°C (January) to 17°C (July), while in the Central steppes temperatures are warmer, ranging from -15°C to 21°C. The warmest regions are located in the South Eastern Gobi Desert. Annual mean precipitation shows a gradient from North to South: 300 to 400 mm in the Northern and Central mountainous regions, 150 to 250 mm in the steppe zones ranges and only 50 to 100 mm in the Gobi Desert part. Nearly 85% of the total annual precipitation falls between April and September.

Source: United Nations ESCAP 2020

Currency

Mongolian tögrög

INFORM RISK SCORE

2.8 (low risk)

Source: INFORM Risk 2021

INTERNATIONAL CALLING CODE

+976

INTERNET COUNTRY CODE

.mn

ELECTRICAL STANDARD

230V, 50Hz; Plug: Types C and E

WORKING GROUPS IN PLACE

Local UN/NGO ICT WG in place - No (in progress)

Communicating with Communities (CWC) WG in place - Yes (active) 

LOGISTICS PROFILE INFORMATION

The need for transportation improvements in Mongolia is well recognised, and the government has focused resources and expended considerable political will on building roads and rail links, and in developing the new international airport. Currently, connections are not efficient, warehousing is not sufficient, and goods move slowly due to a lack of proper systems and because of various choke points at ports and other transfer zones. This may be one of the country’s most pressing challenges, as the lack of efficient logistics threatens to keep the cost of imported goods high and exports uncompetitive, despite heavy investment in transportation.

Source: Oxford Business Group

Key ICT statistics
Fixed-telephone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants

11

Source: ITU 2019

Mobile-cellular subscriptions per 100 inhabitants

4.42 million

Source: DataReportal 2020

Fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants

317,317

Source: ITU 2019

Mobile-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants

137

Source: ITU 2019

GSMA mobile connectivity index score
3G coverage % of population
Regulations and rules
Regolations/Rules
Type of regulation
Disaster management
Description

The purpose of this law is to organize disaster protection activities promptly and effectively, and to regulate relations related to the emergency organization and disaster management system, organization and activities.

Type of regulation
Telecommunications
Description

The purpose of this law is to regulate relations between State organisations, service providers, business entities and individuals engaged in telecommunications and the creation, utilisation and protection of the telecommunications network and telecommunications services in Mongolia.

Type of regulation
Telecommunications
Policy name
Description

A multilateral treaty governing the provision and availability of communications equipment during disaster relief operations, particularly as regards the transport of radio and related equipment over international boundaries. Mongolia signed the Convention on 18 June 1998.

Type of regulation
UAV
Description

There are active drone regulation laws in Mongolia. 

Communications service providers
Mobile network operator (MNO)
Company name
Mobicom
Mobile network operator (MNO)
Company name
Unitel
Mobile network operator (MNO)
Company name
Skytel
Mobile network operator (MNO)
Company name
G-Mobile
Local satellite service provider
Company name
TS2 Space
Service description
VSAT Satellite Broadband, Thuraya IP
Operational band(s)
Satellite & VSAT: Download 100 Mbit/s, Upload 100 Mbit/s. Mobile Satellite Broadband BGAN: Download 32-492 kbit/s, Upload 32-492 kbit/s. Thuraya IP: Download 444 kbit/s, Upload 384 kbit/s
Local satellite service provider
Company name
Juch-Tech Inc.
Service description
C-band packages, Ku-Band Packages Residential, Small Business, Large Business, Enterprise Business
Operational band(s)
Download 0.5-2 Mbit/s, Upload 128-512 kbit/s
Local satellite service provider
Company name
Businesscomm
Service description
Businesscomm dedicated network, VSAT & satellite internet access
Operational band(s)
Dedicated network: Download 10 Mbit/s, Upload 10 Mbit/s. VSAT: Download 512 kbit/s, Upload 128 kbit/s. Satellite internet access: Download 64 kbit/s, Upload 64 kbit/s
Local satellite service provider
Company name
SpaceX
Service description
SpaceX Broadband Satellite
Operational band(s)
Download 512 kbit/s, Upload 128 kbit/s
Local satellite service provider
Company name
OneWeb
Service description
Broadband satellite
Operational band(s)
Download 512 kbit/s, Upload 128 kbit/s
International Connectivity Infrastructure
Early Warning System
Early Warning System in place - YES

Early warning systems are in place for monitoring natural hazards (such as drought) hazards. Initiatives are typically funded through bilateral aid, and supported by the UN and development banks, in the custody of national counterparts.